Properties of oil
Most motor oils are made from a heavier, thicker petroleum hydrocarbon base stock derived from crude oil, with additives to improve certain properties. The bulk of a typical motor oil consists of hydrocarbons with between 18 and 34 carbon atoms per molecule.7 One of the most important properties of motor oil in maintaining a lubricating film between moving parts is its viscosity. The viscosity of a liquid can be thought of as its "thickness" or a measure of its resistance to flow. The viscosity must be high enough to maintain a lubricating film, but low enough that the oil can flow around the engine parts under all conditions. The viscosity index is a measure of how much the oil's viscosity changes as temperature changes. A higher viscosity index indicates the viscosity changes less with temperature than a lower viscosity index.
Motor oil must be able to flow adequately at the lowest temperature it is expected to experience in order to minimize metal to metal contact between moving parts upon starting up the engine. The pour point defined first this property of motor oil, as defined by ASTM D97 as "... an index of the lowest temperature of its utility ..." for a given application,8 but the "cold cranking simulator" (CCS, see ASTM D5293-08) and "Mini-Rotary Viscometer" (MRV, see ASTM D3829-02(2007), ASTM D4684-08) are today the properties required in motor oil specs and define the SAE classifications.
Oil is largely composed of hydrocarbons which can burn if ignited. Still another important property of motor oil is its flash point, the lowest temperature at which the oil gives off vapors which can ignite. It is dangerous for the oil in a motor to ignite and burn, so a high flash point is desirable. At a petroleum refinery, fractional distillation separates a motor oil fraction from other crude oil fractions, removing the more volatile components, and therefore increasing the oil's flash point (reducing its tendency to burn).
Another manipulated property of motor oil is its Total base number (TBN), which is a measurement of the reserve alkalinity of an oil, meaning its ability to neutralize acids. The resulting quantity is determined as mg KOH/ (gram of lubricant). Analogously, Total acid number (TAN) is the measure of a lubricant's acidity. Other tests include zinc, phosphorus, or sulfur content, and testing for excessive foaming.
The NOACK volatility (ASTM D-5800) Test determines the physical evaporation loss of lubricants in high temperature service. A maximum of 14% evaporation loss is allowable to meet API SL and ILSAC GF-3 specifications. Some automotive OEM oil specifications require lower than 10%.
Most Popular car parts
Due to the geographical location of Polish among the most frequently mentioned car parts are the tires. In winter, most drivers choose to mount tires designed for harsh weather conditions. Excessive use of a Particular type of tire small to have an adverse effect on Their Subsequent performance. Therefore, it is important to regularly held reviewed accompanied by checking the condition of the tires and the like equipment. It is servicing a car you can discover the many defects That can be quite easily removed and Which constitute the safety of passengers using the vehicle. So Consider carefully check the status of our car.
Rinse the car
Many drivers likes to independently perform most operations with your car and not due to any savings, but it is due to the fact that the appearance of the car has great importance to them. That is why from time to time manage Family washing the car, which is its vacuuming, taking out from the middle of all the rugs and decent scrubbing. The car is also cleaned from the outside, and finally by rinsing using a garden hose or buckets of warm water. In so doing, the driver also checks the engine oil level and complements the state if necessary. Sometimes he succeeds his passion for cars instill the sons, which becomes for him a source of immense satisfaction.